Hawking radiation in the field of black holes
Presenting the important theory of “Hawking radiation” in the field of black holes
Prior to this theory, physicists believed that nothing could come out of a black hole. In 1974, Hawking showed that black holes could also have certain radiations until they gradually reduced in mass and evaporated.
This theory initially caused controversy among scientists, but was eventually accepted and is now recognized as one of the most important achievements in the field of black hole physics.
Activities in the field of cosmic inflation
The theory of cosmic inflation was first proposed in the 1980s by Alan Guth. This theory, now accepted by the scientific community, shows that moments after the Big Bang, there was a sudden expansion in the universe, and then it continued at a slower rate.
Hawking was one of the first scientists to work on this theory, and he calculated the role of quantum fluctuations during inflation in the formation and expansion of galaxies in the universe.
Presenting a model of the basic conditions of the universe
In 1983, Hawking, along with James Hartel, introduced a model known as the Hartel-Hawking model.
He suggested that “time” did not exist before the Big Bang, and therefore any question about the beginning of the universe is a meaningless and incorrect question.
This idea is known as one of the best theories to explain the initial state of the universe.
Presenting the theory of “top-down cosmology”
In 2006, he co-authored a theory called “top-down cosmology” with CERN scientist Thomas Hertog, who suggested that the universe did not have a unique primordial state but at the same time contained many primordial states.
Therefore, because we do not know the basics of the world, we will not be able to provide a bottom-up model. In this case, the study of the universe will be possible only from a top-down perspective, and the final state of the universe is the current state of the universe. This theory quickly became popular and is in line with the well-known superstring theory.
Publishing the successful book “A Brief History of Time”
In 1988, Hawking’s History of Time was published. In this book, Hawking describes cosmological topics in relatively simple language, such as the Big Bang, black holes, and the concepts of the cone of light in relativity.
The level of this book is chosen in such a way that even a reader with a brief knowledge can well understand the advanced concepts of cosmology.
This made the sales of this book exceed 10 million copies in 20 years and it became one of the best-selling scientific books in history.
The publication of this book played an important role in Hawking’s rise to fame. To the extent that the media called him “Master of the Universe”.
Publishing a collection of scientific books in simple language for the general student body
Following the publication of The History of Time, several other books were written and published by Hawking. Popular books such as Black Holes and the Early World in 1993, The World in Walnut Peel in 2001,
On the Shoulders of a Giant in 2002, and Mathematical Achievements That Changed History in 2005. He also co-authored a collection of science books for children with his daughter Lucy.
Receiving numerous prestigious awards throughout life
A few weeks after the publication of Hawking Radiation in 1974, he was invited as one of the youngest members of the Royal Society of London.
He was also honorably commanded by the Queen of England in 1982 as Commander-in-Chief of the British Imperial Army, and in 1985 was awarded the Royal Astronomical Society Gold Medal.
In 1987 he received the Paul Dirac Medal for his contributions to theoretical physics.