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Engine Components

Engine Components

The following could be a list of major components found in most reciprocating burning engines.
DATUM TARGET: Datum target symbols, Datum target points & Application (prajengineer.com)
Block Body of engine containing the cylinders, made from forged iron or aluminum.

In many older engines, the valves and valve ports were contained within the block.

The block of water-cooled engines includes a vessel cast about the cylinders. On air-cooled engines, the outside surface of the block has cooling fins.

Camshaft rod want to push open valves at the right time within the engine cycle, either directly or through mechanical or hydraulic linkage (push rods, rocker arms, tappets).

Most modern automobile engines have one or more camshafts mounted within the engine head (overhead cam).

Most older engines had camshafts within the crankcase.

Camshafts are generally manufactured from forged steel or forged iron and are driven off the crankshaft by means of a belt or chain (timing chain).

Carburetor Venturi flow device which meters the correct amount of fuel into the air flow by means of a pressure differential.

For many decades it absolutely was the essential fuel metering system on all automobile (and other) engines.

It is still used on low-cost small engines like lawn mowers, but is rare on new automobiles.


The end of the cylinder between the pinnacle and also the piston face where combustion occurs.

The term “cylinder” is usually synonymous with “combustion chamber” (e.g., “the engine was firing on all cylinders”).

Some engines have open combustion chambers which include one chamber for every cylinder. Other engines have divided chambers which include dual chambers on each cylinder connected by an orifice passage.


Rod connecting the piston with the rotating crankshaft, usually product of steel or alloy forging in most engines but could also be aluminum in some small engines.


Bearing where rod fastens to crankshaft.

Cooling fins Metal fins on the surface surfaces of cylinders and head of an air-cooled engine.

Crankcase a part of the casting surrounding the rotating crankshaft.

In many engines, the oil pan makes up a part of the crankcase housing.

Crankshaft rod through which engine work output is supplied to external systems.

The crankshaft is connected to the casting with the most bearings.

This offset is typically called crank throw or crank radius.

Most crankshafts are made from forged steel, while some are product of forged iron.


The circular cylinders within the block within which the pistons reciprocate back and forth.

Cylinders is also machined directly within the cylinder block, or a tough metal (drawn steel) sleeve could also be pressed into the softer metal block.

Sleeves could also be dry sleeves, which don’t contact the liquid within the vessel, or wet sleeves, which form a part of the vessel.

In a few engines, the cylinder walls are given a knurled surface to assist hold a lubricant film on the walls. In some very rare cases, the cross section of the cylinder isn’t round.

Exhaust manifold Piping system which carries exhaust gases removed from the engine cylinders, usually fabricated from forged iron.

Exhaust system Flow system for removing exhaust gases from the cylinders, treating them, and exhausting them to the environment.

It consists of a manifold which carries the exhaust gases removed from the engine, a thermal or converter to scale back emissions, a muffler to cut back engine noise, and a tailpipe to hold the exhaust gases removed from the passenger compartment.

Fan Most engines have an engine-driven fan to extend air flow through the radiator and thru the engine compartment, which increases waste heat removal from the engine.

Fans is driven mechanically or electrically, and might run continuously or be used only needed.

Flywheel Rotating mass with an oversized moment of inertia connected to the crankshaft of the engine.

The purpose of the flywheel is to store energy and furnish an outsized momentum that keeps the engine rotating between power strokes and smooths out engine operation.

On some aircraft engines the propeller is the flywheel, as does the rotating blade on many lawn mowers.

On SI engines, fuel injectors are located at the valve ports on multipoint port injector systems and upstream at the manifold inlet on throttle body injector systems.

Fuel pump Electrically or mechanically driven pump to provide fuel from the fuel tank (reservoir) to the engine.

Many modern automobiles have an electrical fuel pump mounted submerged within the fuel tank. Some small engines and early automobiles had no fuel pump, looking forward to gravity feed.


Glow plug

Small resistance heater mounted inside the combustion chamber of the many CI engines, want to preheat the chamber enough in order that combustion will occur when first starting a chilly engine.


The piece which closes the top of the cylinders, usually containing a part of the clearance volume of the combustion chamber.

The head is sometimes forged iron or aluminum, and bolts to the casting.

In some fewer common engines, the pinnacle is one piece with the block.

Head gasket

Gasket which is a sealant between the cast and head where they bolt together. they’re usually made in sandwich construction of metal and composite materials.

Some engines use liquid head gaskets.

Intake manifold

Piping system which delivers incoming air to the cylinders, usually fabricated from cast metal, plastic, or stuff.

In most SI engines, fuel is added to the air within the manifold system either by fuel injectors or with a carburetor.

Some intake manifolds are heated to reinforce fuel evaporation.

The individual pipe to one cylinder is termed a runner.

Main bearing

The bearings connected to the cylinder block during which the crankshaft rotates. the utmost number of main bearings would be up to the quantity of pistons plus one, or one between each set of pistons plus the 2 ends. On some less powerful engines, the quantity of main bearings is a smaller amount than this maximum.

Oil pan

Oil reservoir sometimes secured to the lowest of the cylinder block, making up
part of the housing.

Acts because the oil sump for many engines.

Oil pump

Pump accustomed distribute oil from the oil sump to needed lubrication points.

The pump may be electrically driven, however is most ordinarily mechanically driven by the engine.

Some tiny engines don’t have Associate in Nursing pump and are greased by splash distribution.